This paper studies the determinants of personal income, including the returns to education. In the process it estimates how incomes are affected by characteristics such as gender, caste, language, etc. Using a maximum likelihood probability model, private returns to education are estimated; it emerges that greater levels of education increase both the likelihood of being employed as well as the income earned from work. However, the returns from elementary (primary and middle) education are quite low. Also, ceteris paribus, women, lower social groups, rural residents, non-English speakers have both significantly lower incomes and a lower likelihood of being employed. The results indicate that quality of education delivery and ensuring that the child remains in school should form important elements of education policy.

Bhandari L, Bordoloi M (2006), Income Differentials and Returns to Education, Economic and Political Weekly, VOL 41 No. 36 September 09 – September 15.